Beyond all those OS abstractions, your computer is just sand. Well, a large dune of sand compacted to fractions of millimeters of a chip, and you call it the CPU. In the PC world, there are two major companies producing these CPUs; Intel and AMD. Intel has always been at the top although AMD is rising quite well.

At this silicon level, programming varies by different architectures and instruction sets. Popular in the PCs are x86 and x86_64 for 32 bit and 64 bit architectures. They are Complex Instruction Set Computers (CISC) where one single instruction executes multiple low level…

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